**Albert Einstein** ** **

**Space** **-Time - Gravity**

Einstein, more than 200 years after Newton, 1879, decided he did not want God to be the only one who knew what gravity was and developed his theory of General Relativity describing and proving gravity was the combination of Space and Time, Space-Time.

Gravity was no longer pulling us down, Space-Time is pushing us down.

Gravity would also bend light as it followed the curved fabric of Space-Time which was proven in 1919 observing the distorted positions of stars behind a Solar Eclipse. This caught the imagination of the public making him a celebrity overnight and a Noble Prize winner 2 years later.

Einstein came from the predisposition that the universe was stable and eternal, without a birth, even though the mathematics of his equations did not allow this. He changed his math accordingly, introducing a Cosmological Constant, only to later find out he’d been mistaken, this he called, his greatest blunder.

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This is not his famous theory of Special Relativity which deals with light, the speed of light and the interchangeability between matter and energy, E=MC*2 which underlay the creation of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan to end World War 2.

Space-Time is mostly described as a woven fabric mix of Space and Time similar to that of a trampoline which is distorted by the placing of a heavy object on it. The moon therefore orbits around the earth as it moves through the curvature of the Earths distortion of Space-Time. This improved understanding of Gravity is not without its problems as its equation breakdown when attempting to deal with the math of gravity in Black Holes and the Big Bang. Furthermore, Gravity appears to have no place what so ever in the Quantum Mechanics world of the atom.

The criticism often laid to him being he did not get on board with the revolution of Quantum Mechanics and ultimately become irrelevant in search of his not ever found Theory of Everything, where he attempts to unify the certainty of Classical Mechanics, General Relativity with the unpleasant probabilistic nature of Quantum Mechanics.

The Universe – Gravity – The History Channel – (45 minutes)

What on Earth is wrong with Gravity – BBC – (60 minutes)

In physics, spacetime (also space–time, space time or space–time continuum) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum. The spacetime of our universe is usually interpreted from a Euclidean space perspective, which regards space as consisting of three dimensions, and time as consisting of one dimension, the 'fourth dimension'. By combining space and time into a single manifold called Minkowski space, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the supergalactic and subatomic levels.

In non-relativistic classical mechanics, the use of Euclidean space instead of spacetime is appropriate, as time is treated as universal and constant, being independent of the state of motion of an observer. In relativistic contexts, time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space, because the observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of gravitational fields, which can slow the passage of time for an object as seen by an observer outside the field.

Until the beginning of the 20th century, time was believed to be independent of motion, progressing at a fixed rate in all reference frames; however, later experiments revealed that time slows at higher speeds of the reference frame relative to another reference frame. Such slowing, called time dilation, is explained in special relativity theory. Many experiments have confirmed time dilation, such as the relativistic decay of muons from cosmic ray showers and the slowing of atomic clocks aboard a Space Shuttle relative to synchronized Earth-bound inertial clocks. The duration of time can therefore vary according to events and reference frames.

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It can travel round the Earth 7 times in a second moving at just over a billion kilometers per hour, the speed limit for the universe. When we spoke to the Apollo Astronauts on the Moon there was a 1.3 second each way lag because of the time it took the light speed signal to get there and back. Light from the Sun takes more than 8 minutes to reach us; 44 minutes is the delay when we try to contact the probes roving Mars, 3 hours to The Cassini probe at Saturn and 29 hours to Voyager 1 now leaving the Solar System.

For the vast distances in the Cosmos, we use light years as the measurement of the distance light travels in a year, 1 light year equals nearly 9.5 trillion kilometers. The next brightest star in the sky is 8.6 light years away which also means we only see it as it was 8.6 years ago, it could have exploded 5 years ago but it would be another 3.6 years before we’d know it had. This also means the further out in distance the further back in time we look. We would have no idea of the history of our Cosmos if the speed of light travelled instantaneously.

If a galaxy is moving away from us, the expansion of space causes a red-shift in the light we see because its wavelength has been lengthened by expanding space; the faster it moves away from us the greater the red-shift observed which led to the proposal of a Big Bang, an expanding universe meant it was smaller before and so on to an initial single point of expansion, a singularity.

The Universe – Light Speed – The History Channel – (45 minutes)

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its value is exactly 299,792,458 metres per second, a figure that is exact because the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time. This is, to three significant figures, 186,000 miles per second, or about 671 million miles per hour. According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all matter and information in the universe can travel. It is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as light and gravitational waves) travel in vacuum. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial frame of reference of the observer. In the theory of relativity, c interrelates space and time, and also appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.

The speed at which light propagates through transparent materials, such as glass or air, is less than c.

Outer space is a natural setting for measuring the speed of light because of its large scale and nearly perfect vacuum. Typically, one measures the time needed for light to traverse some reference distance in the solar system, such as the radius of the Earth's orbit. Historically, such measurements could be made fairly accurately, compared to how accurately the length of the reference distance is known in Earth-based units. It is customary to express the results in astronomical units (AU) per day. An astronomical unit is approximately the average distance between the Earth and Sun; it is not based on the International System of Units. Because the AU determines an actual length, and is not based upon time-of-flight like the SI units, modern measurements of the speed of light in astronomical units per day can be compared with the defined value of c in the International System of Units.

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